Thursday, April 22, 2021

Establishing Irrigation and Transplanting 

                                                                    Installed manifold including filter and regulator
Laying out the irrigation is sometimes a tedious task, but when installed properly and when using quality products from reputable sources (Toro Aqua-traxx, it makes the rest of the growing season or seasons much easier. I installed the manifold seen above at my new growing area. The manifold includes a 120 mesh filter and a 12 psi pressure regulator.  The parts are designed to be attached to a hose bib for use with standard fittings around the home including municipal and clean well sources. 

                                                                5/8 inch drip tape attached to 3/4 inch poly mainline
From the standard hose bib and manifold, I attached a 3/4 inch poly line which serves as the mainline. Using a small punch, I attach a 1/4 inch barbX5/8 inch lock tight valve to the mainline. I then attach 5/8 inch 15 mil drip tape to the valve and run 100 foot rows on top of my previously constructed 30 inch beds. I run a single row of tape down the center of the beds for tomatoes, but must other beds will receive two rows of tape evenly spaced on top of the beds. 

Even with the filter on the manifold, I let the water run out the end of the drip tape for a minute to remove any dust or debris

As mentioned above, I use 15 mil Toro brand Aqua Traxx Drip tape with 8 inches emitter spacing. The 15 mil thickness of the tape allows for more abuse and when cared for can easily last 3-5 growing seasons. I also find that the 8 inch drip spacing is the most versatile and allows for intensive planting. 

                                                      Trying out  heat tolerant varieties of Broccoli and Cauliflower

First seven beds planted and being irrigated

A 100 foot row of Super Sweet 100 Cherry Tomatoes

I transplant these seedling by hand as the space is too small to require mechanical transplanting and because I have chosen to maximize use of the entire space, leaving no room to maneuver a tractor. The Super Sweet 100 and Anaheim Chili seedlings are courtesy of Greg at the Farm on 7th street right here in Norco, and the other tomatoes varieties and the broccoli and cauliflower come from Headstart Nursery in Gilroy, California (although they also have facilities in Mecca). Keep following the progress as I will be direct seeding over the next week. 

Monday, April 19, 2021

 Building Semi Permanent Beds 

                             First six beds formed at the new property

I like to form and farm on what I refer to as semi-permanent beds. These are beds, which I build and maintain over at least one year, but which can be used for as many as two or three years depending on the soil, will be utilized for at least 3 crops every year. The beds will likely grow a cover crop or remain fallow for a season before receiving an additional application of 2-3 inches of compost. 

Following the application of compost and the mixing of compost and native soils with a rototiller, I build 30 inch wide beds, four to six inches high. over the next several growing seasons the beds will continue to grow in height to 6-10 inches high. I utilize a 12 inch furrow between beds and concentrate all walking and other compacting activity on those furrows. 

Once the beds have been constructed, I apply overhead irrigation for a total of about 3/4 inches. This is done to germinate weeds seeds prior to direct seeding or transplanting, so they can be removed without damaging new crop plants. It also ensures adequate spoil moisture for the new seeds and plants.

Overhead sprinklers are used to germinate weeds seeds and provide moisture for new plantings

I use a simple tripod mounted impact head for applying overhead irrigation. This particular sprinkler will throw water in all directions for a distance of 456 feet but can be adjusted to particular measurements in distance and direction. The sprinkler was purchased at Tractor Supply for about $50.00

As I mentioned above, I build my beds 4-6 inches high and 30 inches wide. This width allows for multiple rows of many crops, but is also an adequate width for heavy feeding long growing crops like tomatoes, which will be planted one row to a bed. Other heavy feeders like corn, are planted two rows per bed and at least 3 beds at a time to ensure sufficient pollination. Beds are constructed at either 50 foot or 100 foot lengths. On this plot I am utilizing 100 foot beds. The length of the beds is important to consider when purchasing and planning irrigation supplies which I buy in 4000 foot rolls. I will share the irrigation design and layout in my next post. 


Thursday, April 15, 2021

Windy River Farm Experience

Third Step- Applying compost

                                                      Composted chicken manure applied at the rate of 3yards per acre. 

                                                                 Composted horse manure and green waste applied at 9 yards per acre.
Following the cleanup and leveling of the planting plot which included initial ripping of the hard clay soil (See previous posts) I moved on to improving soil quality and preparing the plot for planting. The third Step in my process is the application of compost. I applied a total of four yards of compost to my 15000 square foot planting area. The compost was made up of 1 yard of composted chicken manure and 3 yards of composted horse manure and green waste. This will increase Nitrogen Phosphorus and Potassium available for crops as well as increase organic matter in the soil. Composting also improves carbon sequestration by putting carbon directly back into the soil. 

I do not practice no-till farming, however, I believe in minimal tillage. I will follow this process ending with the creation of 30" beds that will be semi permanent only being tilled under once every couple of years. I will continue to add compost and work the top two or three inched of the beds to ensure that plants have an easy establishment period and to control weeds. 

First Pass with rototiller following compost application
                                            10,000 square feet have been rototilled

Following the application of 4 yards of compost I rototilled the site using my trusty 5 horsepower Yard Machines rear tine  walk behind rototiller recently tuned up by the Lawn Mower Shop in Corona who I highly recommend for their quality customer service. This process allows me to work the soil and introduce and mix compost into the top 6-8 inches of soil. It also creates a soft, workable seed bed and transplant space. This activity completes the third step in my process of creating a successful and vibrant small farm plot. 


Friday, April 9, 2021

The Windy River Farm Experience

Debris removal and leveling of site-Tuesday April 6th, 2021

I rented and used this John Deere 2032 to collect and remove debris including bricks, concrete chunks and old lumber. Soil tests were completed and the site is safe but only has adequate nitrogen and phosphorus but is deficient in potassium. 

Following debris removal the site was leveled and ripped to (uncover any additional rocks or debris). As much of the existing organic matter as possible was left on/in soil. Compost will be added and 30 inch beds will be created. 


Tuesday, April 6, 2021

Nature and the Small Farm

 After brunch and time with family on Easter, my youngest Son and I took off to do a quick overnight backpacking trip into San Mateo Canyon Wilderness. San Mateo Canyon Wilderness is a 40,000 acre roadless area mostly within Riverside County but with limbs touching or reaching into Orange and San Diego Counties also. 

In 2013, I published a book on the area titled Santa Ana Mountains History, Habitat and Hikes: On the Slopes of Old Saddleback and Beyond. In the book I describe the Natural and Cultural History of the region in some detail, so I will not do so here (Maybe you all will buy the book). In general the wilderness area is made up of deep canyons whose slopes are covered in chaparral and coastal sage scrub, with riparian forest lining the canyon bottoms. 

Now, I consider myself an Ecological Farmer, and I try to follow the laws of nature when carrying out the activities required to grow food, flowers and fiber for my community (Just to be clear, I dont really produce fiber but admire those wh, o do). But on this trip, another role of nature on the farm struck me quite hard. I realized after several years of not entering this wild space, how important wildness on the small farm and for the small farmer, or all farmers for that matter. This short trip proved important for my mind, body and soul. (SOIL, SEEDS, SUNSHINE AND SOUL). Taking a little time to slow down, observe my surroundings and share quality, natural experiences with my son was an opportunity you can't put a price on. 

The wild flowers in bloom was a tremendous extra and this particular area is known for its wavy leaf soap plant and wild peonies. Both of which provided inspiration for my farming. Ceonothus, also know as wild lilac, painted stripes and splotches of blue, purple and lavender across the hillsides while sticky monkey flower and Indian paint brush added reds, yellows and oranges to the canvas. 

Watching birds at flight and feeding on tiny flies and gnats added to my understanding of the things wildlife can do for my farm and the importance of attracting them my fields and pastures. And the creek, which with our drought conditions was very low, provided just enough water to provide an enjoyable and audible background and visual setting that settled and relaxed my mind and soul. It was also deep enough for my son to practice his fly fishing skills though he caught nothing. 

This simple 36 hour get away, took me off the farm physically, but kept me deeply rooted in farming emotionally and spiritually. As I wrap up this quick little post, the sun is beginning to bring light to the day and I must begin the chores required to keep our agricultural enterprises going. I now not only have the laws of nature to guide me, but I have the inspiration of nature to fuel me and that is perhaps the most important role wildness can play on the small farm. 

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